Fidel Castro Dies at Age 90

Fidel Castro Dead at 90 years old

Barbara Walters  One of Few to Interview Fidel Castro

Fidel Castro

http://www.aol.com/article/news/2016/11/26/fidel-castro-former-leader-of-cuba-dies-at-age-90/21614556/

ABC Reports

Castro, Bay of Pigs, Obama, Batista

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President Obama Delivered Commencement at Howard University 2016

In these videos, the President and First Lady spoke on many topics, and among them, were the history of race relations, segregation, mass incarceration, progress in race relations, a lack of voter participation, and the legacy of those who lost their lives fighting against injustices so that the lives of African Americans could be reflective of a more humane and just society.

 

President Obama Delivered Commencement at Howard University 2016

 

 

First Lady Mrs.Michelle Obama Commencement Speech at Jackson State University.

 

 

Black Panther Party Visited Norman Lear to Discuss the Buffoonery of African Americans in his Shows

The Black Panther Party of the 1960’s was seen in different ways by different races and cultures of people.  For me, an African-American woman, mother and grandmother,  they will always be remembered as guardians, educators, and up lifters of their communities.

It was interesting to learn that The Black Panther Party visited Norman Lear to discuss the Buffoonery of African Americans in his shows, and that while it was already in the making, the show “The Jefferson’s” was influenced by their visit.

Norman Lear (Full Episode)

 

IN MEMORY OF SANDRA BLAND WHO ALLEDGEDLY HUNG HERSELF IN A TEXAS JAIL CELL

1.9 Million Settlement in Wrongful Death of Sandra Bland

As a black woman, it is very disheartening to watch the out of control ego of the trooper who became angry at Sandra Bland because she questioned why he asked her to put out a cigarette that she was smoking in her own car.

Even more unbelievable is the fact that he ordered her to get out of her car, during a stop for a minor traffic violation, because she questioned why he asked her to put out the cigarette.

In response, he exerted behavior that appeared out of control. He threatened to taser her, and he used physical force to actually pull her body out of her car.

It is upsetting to see yet another woman in the news being treated in a disrespectful and violent manner by a representative of the law, who equipped with a badge, a gun, a taser, and the authority behind that badge to call the shots, oversteps boundaries.

Aside from the fact that officer Brian Encinia pulled Ms. Bland over for not having signaled, after according to her, “he was tailgating her and she pulled over to allow him to pass.”  History has revealed too often researched and documented facts that blacks are victims of racial profiling by police officers.

At the point in which he asked her to put out her cigarette, she was in her car.  There had been no physical contact between Ms. Bland and the officer.  She had not kicked him. She had been as respectful in spite of her frustrations. Being respectful up to that point did not matter.  Encinia seemed determined to pick a fight.

(Article to this point written by Jolie A. Doggett, (Huffington Post).

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jolie-doggett/momma-cant-save-you_b_7857194.html?flv=1

To insist that she get out of her car because she did not want to put out her cigarette was a matter of the officer being lead by his ego in making his demands.

 

Whenever a civilian is in the presence of a law official, one would think that it is a safe place to be.  However, too often in the news of late, the world is able to see video recordings that document that being in police custody can be a very dangerous place to be.

The video of how Ms. Bland was spoken to and handled by the officer saddens me.

I re-live my own frustrations of being a black woman in the presence of campus police officers, on the campus of Rutgers University, in New Jersey.  When I called campus police while experiencing a housemate out of control, kicking my dorm room door, using profanity, while threatening to attack me, upon leaving the scene, the officer winked at her, as he said to her, “Behave yourself now.”

A housemate wrote to me in an email after the incident had occurred, that the officer said to the white student who had threatened me that “he did not know why he was there.”

I realized that my complaint had not been taken seriously.

When the same student, on a different day, called with an incident report against me, she was escorted away in a patrol car “for her protection.” Historically, white women were more likely to receive the protection of the law, while black women were more likely to be demonized.

When they arrived at the house in response to her call, I was in my dorm room, but officers did not bother to knock on my door to ask me what had happened, as they had knocked on her door when I had called them, to substantiate with me, her claims against me.

My encounter is a minor incident, as compared to that of Sandra Bland, but my point is that incidents such as the one I experienced, when allowed to happen, feeds the egos of such officers, and thus some officers feel safe treating blacks in a racist manner.

Overwhelmingly black women, like black men are not treated fairly in this country by law officials, and many would argue that it is in most cases simply because of  our race and the color of our skin.

http://www.civilrights.org/publications/justice-on-trial/race.html

I was asked by a reporter what I thought of Dylan Roof, the 21 year old who killed nine members of Mother Emanuel Church, in Charleston, South Carolina, where I live.

I told him that Dylan Roof was “Made In America.”  He is a product of the United States of America, just like clothing or fruit labeled with a tag that reads ‘made in the U.S.A.”

He is 21 years old, and considered a man, but he was first a child who was born, nurtured, and raised on America’s soil. He is a part of the fabric of our society.

It is sad to say that his racist attitudes are reflective of a society he grew up in – in this country; A country that has throughout its history, legalized racist acts against blacks.

He was born into a country that legally thrived off a system of institutionalized slavery that considered people with black and brown skin property, and not people. He grew up in a society that has throughout its history, stereotyped blacks as being less than human.

I imagine that he has listened to, and has watched news reports of how blacks live their lives in this country, as well as reports on what the values of black folk are perceived to be – as reported through the judgmental editorial eyes of news reporters concerned more about their ratings than taking the time to research and report facts.

Dylan Roof no doubt knows the history of black leaders who have been assassinated in this country simply for trying to bring about equality for blacks, and unity among blacks and whites, so that we can live in harmony in this country.

The perspective that that he holds of blacks that “you are raping our woman and taking over ‘our’ country,” had to have come from some misguided source of information.

A HISTORY OF AFRICAN AMERICANS IN PICTURES: PRIMARY SOURCES

Researched by

Terri Mae Owens

Charleston, South Carolina

Camp Lincoln

“African American man, full-length portrait, standing in front of tent, facing front, wearing militaryuniform, holding rifle.”

Library of Congress

[803rd Pioneer Infantry Battalion on the U.S.S. Philippine from Brest harbor, France, July 18, 1919]. no. 16, 803rd Pioneer Infantry band

“803rd Pioneer Infantry Battalion on the U.S.S. Philippine from Brest harbor, France, July 18, 1919]. no. 16, 803rd Pioneer Infantry band. Photograph shows African American band members on the U.S.S. Philippine, during voyage to the United States from Brest, France, 1919.”

Library of Congress

24th Infantry Leaving Salt Lake City, Utah for Chattanooga, Tennessee, April 24th, 1898

“24th Infantry Leaving Salt Lake City, Utah for Chattanooga, Tennessee, April 24th, 1898.  African American soldiers marching down main street, while pedestrians look on.”

Library of Congress

[Spanish American War, Infantry, holding Krag rifle with fixed bayonette, cartridge belt]

“Spanish American War, Infantry, holding Krag rifle with fixed bayonette, cartridge belt] / Electro Photo Co., 909 Franklin Street, Tampa, Fla. Photograph shows a full-length portrait of an African American soldier in uniform, standing with weapon.”

Library of Congress

[World War I soldier, half-length portrait, seated, facing front, with two hats on table]

“World War I soldier, half-length portrait, seated, facing front, with two hats on table.  between 1917 and 1920.”

Library of Congress

2nd Lt. Frank R. Newland [i.e. Steward], 8th US VI

“Photograph shows Frank R. Steward, head-and-shoulders portrait, wearing hat and uniform with United States Volunteer Infantry and crossed rifle insignia, facing front, during the Spanish-American War. (Re-identified as Frank Stewart by R. Cunningham, 2002. Re-identified with spelling “Steward” by G. Murphy, 2011, citing Colored American Magazine, 2:3 [1901], 199 and 203).  2nd Lt. Frank R. Newland [i.e. Steward], 8th US VI .”

Library of Congress

[Sojourner Truth, three-quarter length portrait, standing, wearing spectacles, shawl, and peaked cap, right hand resting on cane]

“Sojourner Truth, three-quarter length portrait, standing, wearing spectacles, shawl, and peaked cap, right hand resting on cane.”

Library of Congress

Sojourner Truth

“Photograph shows Sojourner Truth in a three-quarter-length portrait. She is sitting at table with knitting and a book.”

Library of Congress

Sojourner Truth

“Sojourner Truth”

Library of Congress

A. Lincoln showing Sojourner Truth the Bible presented by colored people of Baltimore, Executive Mansion, Washington, D.C., Oct. 29, 1864

“A. Lincoln showing Sojourner Truth the Bible presented by colored people of Baltimore, Executive Mansion, Washington, D.C., Oct. 29, 1864.”

Library of Congress

Detroit, Michigan. Negro mother and children at Sojourner Truth homes

“Detroit, Michigan. Negro mother and children at Sojourner Truth homes.”

Library of Congress

Detroit, Michigan. Negro mother and child at Sojourner Truth homes

“Detroit, Michigan. Negro mother and child at Sojourner Truth homes”

Library of Congress

Detroit, Michigan. Riot at the Sojourner Truth homes, a new U.S. federal housing project, caused by white neighbors' attempt to prevent Negro tenants from moving in. Back view of typical newspaper photographer

“Detroit, Michigan. Riot at the Sojourner Truth homes, a new U.S. federal housing project, caused by white neighbors’ attempt to prevent Negro tenants from moving in. Back view of typical newspaper photographer.”

Library of Congress

Detroit, Michigan. Riot at the Sojourner Truth homes, a new U.S. federal housing project, caused by white neighbors' attempt to prevent Negro tenants from moving in. Home guard troops with bared bayonets preventing cars from entering

“Detroit, Michigan. Riot at the Sojourner Truth homes, a new U.S. federal housing project, caused by white neighbors’ attempt to prevent Negro tenants from moving in. Home guard troops with bared bayonets preventing cars from entering.”

Library of Congress

Detroit, Michigan. Riot at the Sojourner Truth homes, a new U.S. federal housing project, caused by white neighbors' attempt to prevent Negro tenants from moving in. Furniture vans under police convoy

“Detroit, Michigan. Riot at the Sojourner Truth homes, a new U.S. federal housing project, caused by white neighbors’ attempt to prevent Negro tenants from moving in. Furniture vans under police convoy.”

Library of Congress

Detroit, Michigan. Typical Negro family at the Sojourner Truth homes

“Detroit, Michigan. Typical Negro family at the Sojourner Truth homes”

Library of Congress

Detroit, Michigan. Typical Negro family at Sojourner Truth homes

“Detroit, Michigan. Typical Negro family at Sojourner Truth homes.”

Library of Congress

Detroit, Michigan. Riot at the Sojourner Truth homes, a new U.S. federal housing project, caused by white neighbors' attempt to prevent Negro tenants from moving in. White picket line

“Detroit, Michigan. Riot at the Sojourner Truth homes, a new U.S. federal housing project, caused by white neighbors’ attempt to prevent Negro tenants from moving in. White picket line.”

Library of Congress

Eliminate crime in the slums through housing

“Poster promoting planned housing as a method to deter crime in the slums, showing stylized man holding a gun against a backdrop of tenement buildings.”

Library of Congress

Detroit, Michigan. Riot at the Sojourner Truth homes, a new U.Sn federal housing project, caused by white neighbors' attempt to prevent Negro tenants from moving in. Sign with American flag

“Detroit, Michigan. Riot at the Sojourner Truth homes, a new U.Sn federal housing project, caused by white neighbors’ attempt to prevent Negro tenants from moving in. Sign with American flag “We want white tenants in our white community,” directly opposite the housing project.”

Library of Congress

Children in slum area, Washington, D.C. Children in their backyard in a slum area near the Capitol. This area inhabited by both black and white

“Children in slum area, Washington, D.C. Children in their backyard in a slum area near the Capitol. This area inhabited by both black and white.”

Library of Congress

[Untitled photo, possibly related to: Children in slum area, Washington, D.C. Children in their backyard in a slum area near the Capitol. This area inhabited by both black and white]

“Untitled photo, possibly related to: Children in slum area, Washington, D.C. Children in their backyard in a slum area near the Capitol. This area inhabited by both black and white.”

Library of Congress

[Untitled photo, possibly related to: Children in slum area, Washington, D.C. Children in their backyard in a slum area near the Capitol. This area inhabited by both black and white]

“Untitled photo, possibly related to: Children in slum area, Washington, D.C. Children in their backyard in a slum area near the Capitol. This area inhabited by both black and white.”

Library of Congress

[Untitled photo, possibly related to: Children in slum area, Washington, D.C. Children in their backyard in a slum area near the Capitol. This area inhabited by both black and white]

“Untitled photo, possibly related to: Children in slum area, Washington, D.C. Children in their backyard in a slum area near the Capitol. This area inhabited by both black and white”

Library of Congress

[Untitled photo, possibly related to: Children in slum area, Washington, D.C. Children in their backyard in a slum area near the Capitol. This area inhabited by both black and white]

“Untitled photo, possibly related to: Children in slum area, Washington, D.C. Children in their backyard in a slum area near the Capitol. This area inhabited by both black and white.”

Library of Congress

[Untitled photo, possibly related to: Children in slum area, Washington, D.C. Children in their backyard in a slum area near the Capitol. This area inhabited by both black and white]

“Untitled photo, possibly related to: Children in slum area, Washington, D.C. Children in their backyard in a slum area near the Capitol. This area inhabited by both black and white.”

Library of Congress

Capital slums to go under new low rent housing program. Washington, D.C., Nov. 30. Now that President Roosevelt has approved the $15,000,000 low rent housing program for the District of Columbia, such slum scenes as this will disappear from the 'city beautiful.' This picture was made within a stone's throw of the U.S. Capitol

“Capital slums to go under new low rent housing program. Washington, D.C., Nov. 30. Now that President Roosevelt has approved the $15,000,000 low rent housing program for the District of Columbia, such slum scenes as this will disappear from the ‘city beautiful.’ This picture was made within a stone’s throw of the U.S. Capitol 1938.”

Library of Congress

President Roosevelt approves D.C. low rent housing program. Capital slums to go. Washington, D.C., Nov. 30. President Roosevelt's approval of the $15,000,000 low rent housing program for the District of Columbia means that slum sections, such as this one showing the House Office Building in the background, will disappear from the nation's Capital

“President Roosevelt approves D.C. low rent housing program. Capital slums to go. Washington, D.C., Nov. 30. President Roosevelt’s approval of the $15,000,000 low rent housing program for the District of Columbia means that slum sections, such as this one showing the House Office Building in the background, will disappear from the nation’s Capital.”

Detroit, Michigan. Riot at the Sojourner Truth homes, a new U.S. federal housing project, caused by white neighbors' attempt to prevent Negro tenants from moving in. Mounted police

“Detroit, Michigan. Riot at the Sojourner Truth homes, a new U.S. federal housing project, caused by white neighbors’ attempt to prevent Negro tenants from moving in. Mounted police.”

Library of Congress

Detroit, Michigan. Coming up the stairway to a Negro's home. These are conditions under which families originally lived before moving to the Sojourner Truth housing project

“Detroit, Michigan. Coming up the stairway to a Negro’s home. These are conditions under which families originally lived before moving to the Sojourner Truth housing project.”

Library of Congress

Detroit, Michigan. Back view of a Negro's home. These are conditions under which families originally lived before moving to the Sojourner Truth housing project

“Detroit, Michigan. Back view of a Negro’s home. These are conditions under which families originally lived before moving to the Sojourner Truth housing project.”

Library of Congress

Detroit, Michigan. Looking over slum houses. These are conditions under which families originally lived before moving to the Sojourner Truth housing project

“Detroit, Michigan. Looking over slum houses. These are conditions under which families originally lived before moving to the Sojourner Truth housing project.”

Library of Congress

Detroit, Michigan. Typical Negro residential fronts. These are conditions under which families originally lived before moving to the Sojourner Truth project

“Detroit, Michigan. Typical Negro residential fronts. These are conditions under which families originally lived before moving to the Sojourner Truth project.”

Library of Congress

Detroit, Michigan. Typical Negro residence. These are conditions under which families originally lived before moving to the Sojourner Truth housing project

“Detroit, Michigan. Typical Negro residence. These are conditions under which families originally lived before moving to the Sojourner Truth housing project.”

Library of Congress

Detroit, Michigan. Seven Negro families live in this di lapidated house. These are conditions under which families originally lived before moving to the Sojourner Truth housing project

“Detroit, Michigan. Seven Negro families live in this di lapidated house. These are conditions under which families originally lived before moving to the Sojourner Truth housing project.”

Library of Congress

Detroit, Michigan. Typical Negro residence. These are conditions under which families originally lived before moving to the Sojourner Truth housing project

“Detroit, Michigan. Typical Negro residence. These are conditions under which families originally lived before moving to the Sojourner Truth housing project.”

Library of Congress

Detroit, Michigan. Negro residence. These are conditions under which families originally lived before moving to the Sojourner Truth housing project

“Detroit, Michigan. Negro residence. These are conditions under which families originally lived before moving to the Sojourner Truth housing project.”

Library of Congress

Detroit, Michigan. Typical Negro residence. These are conditions under which families originally lived before moving to the Sojourner Truth housing project

“Detroit, Michigan. Typical Negro residence. These are conditions under which families originally lived before moving to the Sojourner Truth housing project.”

Library of Congress

Detroit, Michigan. Typical Negro residence. These are conditions under which families originally lived before moving to the Sojourner Truth housing project

“Detroit, Michigan. Typical Negro residence. These are conditions under which families originally lived before moving to the Sojourner Truth housing project.”

Library of Congress

Detroit, Michigan. Alley in a Negro neighborhood. These are conditions under which families originally lived before moving to the Sojourner Truth housing project

“Detroit, Michigan. Alley in a Negro neighborhood. These are conditions under which families originally lived before moving to the Sojourner Truth housing project.”

Library of Congress

Detroit, Michigan. Negro father playing with baby daughter. Old style burner in the foreground. These are conditions under which families originally lived before moving to the Sojourner Truth housing project

“Detroit, Michigan. Negro father playing with baby daughter. Old style burner in the foreground. These are conditions under which families originally lived before moving to the Sojourner Truth housing project.”

Library of Congress

Detroit, Michigan. Negro baby in a crib. These are conditions under which families originally lived before moving to the Sojourner Truth housing project

“Detroit, Michigan. Negro baby in a crib. These are conditions under which families originally lived before moving to the Sojourner Truth housing project 1942.”

Library of Congress

Detroit, Michigan. Negro doing embroidery work in her bedroom. These are conditions under which families originally lived before moving to the Sojourner Truth housing project

“Detroit, Michigan. Negro doing embroidery work in her bedroom. These are conditions under which families originally lived before moving to the Sojourner Truth housing project.”

Library of Congress

Detroit, Michigan. A typical Negro worker's family. These are conditions under which families originally lived before moving to the Sojourner Truth housing project

“Detroit, Michigan. A typical Negro worker’s family. These are conditions under which families originally lived before moving to the Sojourner Truth housing project.”

Library of Congress

Detroit, Michigan. Negro family at dinner. These are conditions under which families originally lived before moving to the Sojourner Truth housing project

“Detroit, Michigan. Negro family at dinner. These are conditions under which families originally lived before moving to the Sojourner Truth housing project.”

Library of Congress

Detroit, Michigan. Bathroom of a Negro family. These are conditions under which families originally lived before moving to the Sojourner Truth housing project

“Detroit, Michigan. Bathroom of a Negro family. These are conditions under which families originally lived before moving to the Sojourner Truth housing project’

Library of Congress

Detroit, Michigan. This man worked at Ford factory but was unable to live in a decent place until Sojourner Truth homes were open for occupancy

“Detroit, Michigan. This man worked at Ford factory but was unable to live in a decent place until Sojourner Truth homes were open for occupancy.”

Library of Congress

Detroit, Michigan. Interior of a bathroom, with a Negro boy washing his hands. These are conditions under which families originally lived before moving to the Sojourner Truth housing project

“Detroit, Michigan. Interior of a bathroom, with a Negro boy washing his hands. These are conditions under which families originally lived before moving to the Sojourner Truth housing project.”

Library of Congress

Detroit, Michigan. Looking towards downtown from the slum area in the early morning. These are conditions under which families originally lived before moving to the Sojourner Truth housing project

“Detroit, Michigan. Looking towards downtown from the slum area in the early morning. These are conditions under which families originally lived before moving to the Sojourner Truth housing project.”

Library of Congress

Detroit, Michigan. Looking towards downtown from the slum area. These are conditions under which families originally lived before moving to the Sojourner Truth housing project

“Detroit, Michigan. Looking towards downtown from the slum area. These are conditions under which families originally lived before moving to the Sojourner Truth housing project.”

Library of Congress

Detroit, Michigan. Sojourner Truth homes, a new U.S. federal housing project

“Detroit, Michigan. Sojourner Truth homes, a new U.S. federal housing project.”

Library of Congress

Detroit, Michigan. Multiple unit at the Sojourner Truth homes, a new U.S. federal housing project

“Detroit, Michigan. Multiple unit at the Sojourner Truth homes, a new U.S. federal housing project.”

Library of Congress

Detroit, Michigan. The Sojourner Truth homes, a new U.S. federal housing project

“Detroit, Michigan. The Sojourner Truth homes, a new U.S. federal housing project.”

Library of Congress

Detroit, Michigan. Various units of the Sojourner Truth homes, a new U.S. federal housing project

“Detroit, Michigan. Various units of the Sojourner Truth homes, a new U.S. federal housing project.”

Library of Congress

Detroit, Michigan. Sojourner Truth homes, a new U.S. federal housing project

“Detroit, Michigan. Sojourner Truth homes, a new U.S. federal housing project.”

Library of Congress

New York, New York. Demolition for slum clearance. Whole blocks of a slum area are torn down to make room for a housing project

“New York, New York. Demolition for slum clearance. Whole blocks of a slum area are torn down to make room for a housing project.”

Library of Congress

Better housing The solution to infant mortality in the slums /

“Poster promoting better housing as a solution for high rates of infant mortality in the slums, showing a blueprint of new housing next to existing tenement buildings over which stands the figure of Death.”

Library of Congress

New York, New York. Demolition for slum clearance. Whole blocks of a slum area are torn down to make room for a housing project

“New York, New York. Demolition for slum clearance. Whole blocks of a slum area are torn down to make room for a housing project.”

Library of Congress

New York, New York. Demolition for slum clearance. Whole blocks of a slum area are torn down to make room for a housing project

“New York, New York. Demolition for slum clearance. Whole blocks of a slum area are torn down to make room for a housing project.”

Library of Congress

New York, New York. Demolition for slum clearance. Blocks of slum area are torn down for housing project

“New York, New York. Demolition for slum clearance. Blocks of slum area are torn down for housing project.”

Library of Congress

New York, New York. Demolition for slum clearance. Whole blocks of a slum area are torn down to make room for a housing project

“New York, New York. Demolition for slum clearance. Whole blocks of a slum area are torn down to make room for a housing project.”

Library of Congress

[Harriet Tubman, full-length portrait, seated in chair, facing front, probably at her home in Auburn, New York]

“Harriet Tubman, full-length portrait, seated in chair, facing front, probably at her home in Auburn, New York.”

Library of Congress

[Harriet Tubman, full-length portrait, standing with hands on back of a chair]

“Harriet Tubman, full-length portrait, standing with hands on back of a chair.”

Library of Congress

Interior view of Harriet Tubman Room, view facing north - Mission Turn Hall, 3543 Eighteenth Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

“Interior view of Harriet Tubman Room, view facing north – Mission Turn Hall, 3543 Eighteenth Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA.”

Library of Congress

Buffalo Soldiers, African American Baseball Team, Slaves, Plantations, Naval Vessels, Pictures in General of African Americans: Primary Sources: Photographs Between 1870 and 1880

Primary Sources on Buffalo Soldiers

By

Terri Mae Owens

Charleston, South Carolina

“Buffalo Soldiers a Name given to the Negro Calvary by the Native American Tribes They Fought.”

[Half-length portrait of an African American man, possibly a Buffalo soldier]

“Half-length portrait of an African American man, possibly a Buffalo soldier] / Mosser & Snell, Traveling Photographic Art Gallery, Cantonment, Ind. Terr.”

Library of Congress

[Full length portrait of an African-American man, possibly a Buffalo soldier]

“Full length portrait of an African-American man, possibly a Buffalo soldier] / Mosser & Snell, Traveling Photographic Art Gallery, Cantonment, Ind. Terr.”

Library of Congress

[Full-length portrait of an African-American man, possibly a Buffalo soldier]

“Full-length portrait of an African-American man, possibly a Buffalo soldier] / Mosser & Snell, Traveling Photographic Art Gallery, Cantonment, Ind. Terr.”

Library of Congress

[Buffalo Soldier, 9th Cavalry, Company D, sharpshooter collar insignia]

“Buffalo Soldier, 9th Cavalry, Company D, sharpshooter collar insignia] / C. C. McBride, Crawford, Nebraska.”

Library of Congress

[Infantry sergeant, Buffalo soldier, with young girl]

“Infantry sergeant, Buffalo soldier, with young girl] / Pollock, Main & Gold Sts., Deadwood, Dakota.”

Library of Congress

[Buffalo soldier in five button sack coat]

“Buffalo soldier in five button sack coat] / J. C. H. Grabill, photographer, Sturgis, Dakota Ter.”

Library of Congress

[Buffalo Soldier, 25th Infantry, Co.]

“Buffalo Soldier, 25th Infantry, Co.] / Goff, photographer, Fort Cust[e]r, Mont.”

Library of Congress

[Buffalo soldier, 25th Infantry, Co. A]

“Buffalo soldier, 25th Infantry, Co. A] / Goff.”

Library of Congress

[Buffalo soldier, full-length portrait, standing, crossed rifles on kepi, ring on pinky finger]

“Buffalo soldier, full-length portrait, standing, crossed rifles on kepi, ring on pinky finger between 1870 and 1880”

Library of Congress

[Buffalo soldier, African American officer, Lt. 1st Infantry, four button sack with crossed rifles and

“Buffalo soldier, African American officer, Lt. 1st Infantry, four button sack with crossed rifles and “1” on kepi] / Staley Bros., photographers and portrait artists, Tullahoma Tenn.”

Library of Congress

Mansion of the rebel Genl. Thomas F. Drayton, Hilton Head, S.C.

“Mansion of the rebel Genl. Thomas F. Drayton, Hilton Head, S.C.’

Library of Congress

Slaves of the rebel Genl. Thomas F. Drayton, Hilton Head, S.C.

“Slaves of the rebel Genl. Thomas F. Drayton, Hilton Head, S.C.”

Library of Congress

[African American baseball team, Danbury, Connecticut]

“African American baseball team, Danbury, Connecticut”

[Young African American woman holding a baby]

Young African American woman holding a baby] / Carvalho, 4 East 14th St., 2 doors from 5th Ave., New York City.”

Library of Congress

Bombproof quarters of Maj. Strong, at Dutch Gap, 16th N.Y. artillery

“Photograph shows two African American soldiers sitting in front of bombproof structure, Dutch Gap, Virginia. Bombproof quarters of Maj. Strong, at Dutch Gap, 16th N.Y. artillery “

Library of Congress

Execution of a Colored soldier

“Photograph shows the execution of William Johnson, 23rd Regiment, United States Colored Troops (USCT), at Petersburg, Va., 1864.”

Library of Congress

[Sergeant in frock coat, Russian knot epaulette, aiguillette]

“Sergeant in frock coat, Russian knot epaulette, aiguillette] / Luke Otis, photographer.1870 and 1890”

Library of Congress

[Three-quarter length portrait of an African American woman posed with book]

“Three-quarter length portrait of an African American woman posed with book] / Bostwick, 98 Sixth Ave., N.Y.”

Library of Congress

[Col. T. W. Higginson, commander of the 1st SC Volunteers (the first African American regiment)]

“Col. T. W. Higginson, commander of the 1st SC Volunteers (the first African American regiment)] / W. Notman. between 1905 and 1911.”

Library of Congress

[Frank M. Welch, Maj. Cmdg 5th Battalion, CNG]

“Frank M. Welch, Maj. Cmdg 5th Battalion, CNG] / Betts, 356 Main St., Bridgeport Conn”

Library of Congress

[Full-length portrait of an African American veteran and GAR member, standing on rug between table and chair]

“Full-length portrait of an African American veteran and GAR member, standing on rug between table and chair] / Nealey, Franklin, Mass.”

Library of Congress

[African American soldier, full-length portrait, wearing GAR medal, standing next to table]

“African American soldier, full-length portrait, wearing GAR medal, standing next to table] / Nephew’s, 493 Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, D. C.”

Library of Congress

[World War II, Corporal, 3rd Army patch]

“World War II, Corporal, 3rd Army patch A combat service identification badge embroidered with red, white and blue thread.”

Library of Congress

Slave quarters of Jefferson Davis plantation

“Photograph shows the slave quarters on Brierfield, the Jefferson Davis plantation.”

Library of Congress

[Soldiers marching down street carrying Springfield rifles]

“Soldiers marching down street carrying Springfield rifles.”

Library of Congress

[World War I soldier with American flag in background]

“World War I soldier with American flag in background”

Library of Congress

[World War I Infantry soldiers, standing in front of photographers backdrop]

“World War I Infantry soldiers, standing in front of photographers backdrop”

Library of Congress

[Group portrait of naval personnel including an African American hospital steward]

“Group portrait of naval personnel including an African American hospital steward 1900”

Library of Congress

Colored army teamsters, Cobb Hill, Virginia

“Photograph shows seven African American men, contrabands dressed in old Union uniforms, standing in front of a wagon and old barracks, Bermuda Hundred, Va.”

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[Integrated guard mount, Ft. Niobrara, Nebraska, composed of 8th regiment and 9th cavalry regiment, same formation with other troops, band on parade]

“Integrated guard mount, Ft. Niobrara, Nebraska, composed of 8th regiment and 9th cavalry regiment, same formation with other troops, band on parade”

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[803rd Pioneer Infantry Battalion on the U.S.S. Philippine (troop ship), from Brest harbor, France, July 18, 1919]. no. 2, Landing troops aboard U.S.S. Philippine from lighter in Brest Harbor

“803rd Pioneer Infantry Battalion on the U.S.S. Philippine (troop ship), from Brest harbor, France, July 18, 1919]. no. 2, Landing troops aboard U.S.S. Philippine from lighter in Brest Harbor”

Library of Congress

[803rd Pioneer Infantry Battalion on the U.S.S. Philippine (troop ship) from Brest harbor, France, July 18, 1919]. no. 3, 803rd P. Inf. Band

“Photograph shows soldiers gathered around the 803rd Infantry band on the deck of the U.S.S Philippine, during voyage back to the United States from Brest, France, 1919.”

Library of Congress

[803rd Pioneer Infantry Battalion on the U.S.S. Philippine (troop ship), from Brest harbor, France, July 18, 1919]. no. 14, Bugler's blues

“Photograph shows soldiers gathered around the band, on the U.S.S Philippine, during return voyage to the United States, from Brest, France, 1919.”

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[803rd Pioneer Infantry Battalion on the U.S.S. Philippine (troop ship) from Brest harbor, France, July 18, 1919]. no. 27, Waiting to sight land (only 10 days more)

“Photograph shows soldiers gathered on the deck of the U.S.S Philippine during voyage back to the United States from Brest, France, 1919.”

Library of Congress

[803rd Pioneer Infantry Battalion on the U.S.S. Philippine (troop ship) from Brest harbor, France, July 18, 1919]. no. 29

“Photograph shows soldiers sitting near cargo crates on the deck of the U.S.S. Philippine, during tranport back to the United States, 1919.  803rd Pioneer Infantry Battalion on the U.S.S. Philippine (troop ship) from Brest harbor, France, July 18, 1919]. no. 29 “

Library of Congress

[803rd Pioneer Infantry Battalion on the U.S.S. Philippine (troop ship) from Brest harbor, France, July 18, 1919]. no. 32

‘803rd Pioneer Infantry Battalion on the U.S.S. Philippine (troop ship) from Brest harbor, France, July 18, 1919]. no. 32.  Photograph shows soldiers on the U.S.S. Philippine, standing near lifeboats awaiting transport back to the United States, July 18, 1919.”

Library of Congress

[803rd Pioneer Infantry on the U.S.S. Philippine (troop ship), from Brest harbor, France, July 18, 1919]. no. 34

“803rd Pioneer Infantry on the U.S.S. Philippine (troop ship), from Brest harbor, France, July 18, 1919]. no. 34.   Photograph shows soldiers on deck of ship with gang plank extending from dock to ship, before transport back to the United States, 1919.”

Library of Congress

[803rd Pioneer Infantry Battalion on the U.S.S. Philippine (troop ship) from Brest harbor, France, July 18, 1919]. no. 2[...], Sun bath, U.S.S. Philippine

“803rd Pioneer Infantry Battalion on the U.S.S. Philippine (troop ship) from Brest harbor, France, July 18, 1919]. no. 2[…], Sun bath, U.S.S. Philippine.”

Library of Congress

.[803rd Pioneer Infantry Battalion on the U.S.S. Philippine (troop ship) from Brest harbor, France, July 18, 1919]. U.S.S. Philippine

“Photograph shows the U.S.S. Philippine at Brest harbor, France, awaiting transport of troops back to the United States 1919. 803rd Pioneer Infantry Battalion on the U.S.S. Philippine (troop ship) from Brest harbor, France, July 18, 1919]. U.S.S. Philippine.”

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[803rd Pioneer Infantry Battalion on the U.S.S. Philippine (troop ship) from Brest harbor, France, July 18, 1919]. no. 29

“Photograph shows African American soldiers lounging on the deck of the U.S.S. Philippine on their return to the United States from Brest, France, 1919.”

Library of Congress

[803rd Pioneer Infantry Battalion on the U.S.S. Philippine (troop ship), from Brest harbor, France, July 18, 1919] no. 15, Part of 4000 troops on U.S.S. Philippine

“Photograph shows soldiers and military band on the deck of the U.S.S. Philippine during their return trip to the United States from Brest, France, 1919. 803rd Pioneer Infantry Battalion on the U.S.S. Philippine (troop ship), from Brest harbor, France, July 18, 1919] no. 15, Part of 4000 troops on U.S.S. Philippine.”

Library of Congress

[803rd Pioneer Infantry Battalion on the U.S.S. Philippine (troop ship) from Brest harbor, France, July 18, 1919]

“Photograph shows ships at sea, presumably taken aboard the U.S.S. Philippine, as World War I troops were returning to the United States, 1919.”

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[803rd Pioneer Infantry Battalion on the U.S.S. Philippine (troop ship) from Brest harbor, France, July 18, 1919]. no. 4, U.S.S. Imperator (one of the largest ships afloat) taken from the U.S.S. Philippine at Brest

“803rd Pioneer Infantry Battalion on the U.S.S. Philippine (troop ship) from Brest harbor, France, July 18, 1919]. no. 4, U.S.S. Imperator (one of the largest ships afloat) taken from the U.S.S. Philippine at Brest.”

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Signal Station, Hilton Head, South Carolina, 1863

“Signal Station, Hilton Head, South Carolina, 1863 / photographed and for sale by H. P. Moore, Concord, N.[H].”

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[African American soldiers in formation at Camp Meade, Pennsylvania]

“African American soldiers in formation at Camp Meade, Pennsylvania] / J. M. Pattison, photographer.”

Library of Congress

Cooks galley , Co. F, 3D N. H. V., Hilton Head, S. C.

“Photograph shows Company F soldiers at the Camp of the 3rd New Hampshire Volunteers posing at the cook’s galley, including a young African American boy.  Cooks galley , Co. F, 3D N. H. V., Hilton Head, S. C.”

Library of Congress

114th Regimental Reunion, May 30, 1897, Norwich, N. Y.

Photograph shows a group portrait of the 114th Regimental reunion. Cannon, cannonballs, and drums are in foreground. An African American veteran holds the American flag.  114th Regimental Reunion, May 30, 1897, Norwich, N. Y.”

Library of Congress

[Company I, 24th Infantry regiment officers]

“Photograph shows a group portrait of soldiers from the Company I, 24th Infantry regiment in uniform.”

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Fannie Virginia Casseopia Lawrence, a redeemed slave child, five years of age as she appeared when found in slavery. Redeemed in Virginia by Catharine [i.e., Catherine] S. Lawrence; baptized in Brooklyn, at Plymouth Church by Henry Ward Beecher, May 1863

“Fannie Virginia Casseopia Lawrence, a redeemed slave child, five years of age as she appeared when found in slavery. Redeemed in Virginia by Catharine [i.e., Catherine] S. Lawrence; baptized in Brooklyn, at Plymouth Church by Henry Ward Beecher, May 1863 / photographed by Kellogg Brothers, 279 Main Street, Hartford Conn.”

Library of Congress

Fannie Virginia Casseopia Lawrence, a redeemed slave child, five years of age as she appeared when found in slavery. Redeemed in Virginia by Catharine [i.e., Catherine] S. Lawrence; baptized in Brooklyn, at Plymouth Church by Henry Ward Beecher, May 1863

“Fannie Virginia Casseopia Lawrence, a redeemed slave child, five years of age as she appeared when found in slavery. Redeemed in Virginia by Catharine [i.e., Catherine] S. Lawrence; baptized in Brooklyn, at Plymouth Church by Henry Ward Beecher, May 1863 / photographed by Kellogg Brothers, 279 Main Street, Hartford Conn.

Library of Congress

Drayton's negro quarters, Hilton Head, S.C.

“Drayton’s Negro Quarters Hilton Head Island, S. C.”

Library of Congress

Nursery at Elliot's Plantation, Hilton Head, S.C.

“Nursery at Elliot’s Plantation, Hilton Head, S.C.1862”

Library of Congress

Live oak and palmetto tree, Elliot's Hilton Head, S.C.

“Photograph shows two trees and a few men near a cabin or slave quarters, Elliot Plantation. Live oak and palmetto tree, Elliot’s Hilton Head, S.C.”

Library of Congress

Quarters of Emmons & Handerson, Hilton Head, S.C.

“Photograph shows officers George W. Emmons and Henry C. Handerson, sitting in front of a tent at the camp of the 3rd New Hampshire Infantry. Quarters of Emmons & Handerson, Hilton Head, S.C. “

Library of Congress

Seabrook's negro quarters

“Photograph shows an aerial view of the slave quarters at Seabrook’s Plantation.”

Library of Congress

Seabrook's from the wharf

“Photograph shows John E. Seabrook’s house as seen from the docks. Includes a few soldiers in a row boat. Image shows cotton drying on the lawn to the left and right of the house.”

Library of Congress

Seabrook's fish pond

“Photograph shows two Union soldiers and one African American man in a row boat on a pond with bridges and the Seabrook house in the distant background.”

Library of Congress

Century plant 85 years old, Seabrook's Plantation

“Photograph shows two slaves working near a Century (Agave) plant near the waterfront, Seabrook’s Plantation, with soldiers sitting on the dock in the background.”

Library of Congress

Seabrook's flower garden

“Photograph shows an aerial view of Union soldiers and slaves in the Seabrook plantation garden.Mansion of John E. Seabrook, Edisto Island, S.C.   “

Library of Congress

Head Quarters of 1st Mass Cavalry, Edisto Island, S.C.

Photograph shows Union soldiers posed in front of house. Some soldiers are seated in the windows. Head Quarters of 1st Mass Cavalry, Edisto Island, S.C. “

Library of Congress

Gwine to de field, Hopkinson's Plantation, Edisto Island, S.C.

“Gwine to de field, Hopkinson’s Plantation, Edisto Island, S.C. Photograph shows slaves on the Hopkinson plantation, with two boys in a cart pulled by a donkey. 1833-1911.”

Library of Congress

Sweet potato planting, Hopkinson's Plantation

“Sweet potato planting, Hopkinson’s Plantation.   Photograph shows slaves working in the sweet potato fields on the Hopkinson plantation. 1833- 1911

Library of Congress

Mansion of James Hopkinson, Edisto Island, S.C.

“Photograph shows slaves standing in fenced yard and a side view of the Hopkinson house.  Mansion of James Hopkinson, Edisto Island, S.C”

Library of Congress

Incidents of the war, group at Secret Service Department Headquarters, Army of the Potomac, Antietam, October 1862

“Incidents of the war, group at Secret Service Department Headquarters, Army of the Potomac, Antietam, October 1862.   Photograph shows fourteen men, including Allan and William Pinkerton, and several Union Army officers posed in front of a tent.”

Library of Congress

[Return envelope of the Bureau of the American Freedmen's Aid Union, No. 130 Nassau-Street, New York]

“Return envelope of the Bureau of the American Freedmen’s Aid Union, No. 130 Nassau-Street, New York”

Library of Congress

“Jewels” found at Alexandria, by the Federal Army; consisting of chains, bracelets, and anklets. Supposed to have belonged to the “First Families” of Virginia / S.C. Upham, 310 Chestnut St.”

Library of Congress

[Stamped envelope addressed to Lieut Edwin T. Carrington]

“Envelope addressed to “Lieut. Edwin T. Carrington, 45 Regt. USCT, 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, 10th Army Corps, Old Point Comfort, Virginia.” Postmark is stamped “Colebrook, CT, Nov 21.” Strikes are drawn through a three-cent US postage stamp.”

Library of Congress

[Stamped envelope addressed to Capt. M. Patterson]

“Envelope is addressed as “Capt. M. Patterson, 19th Reg. USCT, 3rd Brigade, 1st Division, 25th Army Corps, Brownsville, Texas.” Strikes are drawn through a three-cent US postage stamp.”

Library of Congress

[African American man wearing fraternal order collar and apron]

“Photograph shows a full length portrait of an African American man wearing a fraternal order collar and apron. His collar is embroidered with a three links symbol on the left and stars on each side, he holds a sword in his left hand.”

Library of Congress

Alagazam, cake walk, march & two step by Abe Holzmann

“Picture shows African American troops marching with rifles. Used as an illustrated sheet music cover for songs written by Abe Holzmann.  Alagazam, cake walk, march & two step by Abe Holzmann / Chapman, ’02. “

Library of Congress

Jefferson Davis

“Jefferson Davis  Photograph shows a full length portrait of Jefferson Davis, holding his hat in hand. Verso image shows the slave quarters on his plantation.”

Library of Congress

[Wounded colored soldiers at Aikens Landing]

“Wounded colored soldiers at Aikens Landing”

Library of Congress

[Buffalo soldiers of the 25th Infantry, some wearing buffalo robes, Ft. Keogh, Montana]

“Buffalo soldiers of the 25th Infantry, some wearing buffalo robes, Ft. Keogh, Montana] / Chr. Barthelmess, photographer, Fort Keogh, Montana. “

Notes:

  • “#5. Some of the coons that are in camp at Keogh taken Sunday morning, Dec. 14th ’90” handwritten inscription in red ink on back.
  • Purchase; William A. Gladstone; 1995; (PR 13 CN 1995:113.274)

  “

Library of Congress